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Further issues concern the potential of preservation and recognition of offshore tsunami impact.
Potential offshore tsunami deposits are subjected to several processes, which may remove or alter them.
In contrast to onshore tsunami deposits with a relatively well-established set of diagnostic features, based on many studies of recent tsunami events (e.g. The existing data are far from sufficient to establish universal key criteria for the identification of offshore tsunami deposits and to understand the controlling processes of deposition associated with tsunami passages.
Onshore tsunami deposits and satellite images, which show large amounts of sediment transported offshore, indicate that the seafloor was impacted by tsunami run-up and backwash.
These processes are, for instance, waves, currents, tides, and bio-turbation.
After the 2004 tsunami, the beaches along the Thai coastline, which had been heavily eroded, were rebuilt naturally.
Most of the evidence of offshore effects is based on a few scattered observations or sampling sites, and does not allow an overall assessment of the tsunami impact on the seafloor of the inner shelf.
Topographical variations lead to changes in the tsunami run-up height and impacts onshore (e.g. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect the submarine effects of tsunami to vary spatially as a result of differing bathymetry.